The reenactors are busloads of tourists—usually Turkish, sometimes European. The buses white, air-conditioned, equipped with televisions blunder over the winding, indifferently paved road to the ridge and dock like dreadnoughts before a stone portal. Visitors flood out, fumbling with water bottles and MP3 players.
Guides call out instructions and explanations. Paying no attention, the visitors straggle up the hill. When they reach the top, their mouths flop open with amazement, making a line of perfect cartoon O's. Before them are dozens of massive stone pillars arranged into a set of rings, one mashed up against the next.Haora tipa koinaki whakapapa
The assemblage was built some 11, years ago, seven millennia before the Great Pyramid of Giza. It contains the oldest known temple. When these pillars were erected, so far as we know, nothing of comparable scale existed in the world. Construction of the site would have required more people coming together in one place than had likely occurred before.
Amazingly, the temple's builders were able to cut, shape, and transport ton stones hundreds of feet despite having no wheels or beasts of burden. What they do know is that the site is the most significant in a volley of unexpected findings that have overturned earlier ideas about our species' deep past. Just 20 years ago most researchers believed they knew the time, place, and rough sequence of the Neolithic Revolution—the critical transition that resulted in the birth of agriculture, taking Homo sapiens from scattered groups of hunter-gatherers to farming villages and from there to technologically sophisticated societies with great temples and towers and kings and priests who directed the labor of their subjects and recorded their feats in written form.
At first the Neolithic Revolution was viewed as a single event—a sudden flash of genius—that occurred in a single location, Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now southern Iraq, then spread to India, Europe, and beyond.
Most archaeologists believed this sudden blossoming of civilization was driven largely by environmental changes: a gradual warming as the Ice Age ended that allowed some people to begin cultivating plants and herding animals in abundance. The new research suggests that the "revolution" was actually carried out by many hands across a huge area and over thousands of years.
And it may have been driven not by the environment but by something else entirely. After a moment of stunned quiet, tourists at the site busily snap pictures with cameras and cell phones. Eleven millennia ago nobody had digital imaging equipment, of course. Yet things have changed less than one might think. Most of the world's great religious centers, past and present, have been destinations for pilgrimages—think of the Vatican, Mecca, Jerusalem, Bodh Gaya where Buddha was enlightenedor Cahokia the enormous Native American complex near St.
They are monuments for spiritual travelers, who often came great distances, to gawk at and be stirred by. What it suggests, at least to the archaeologists working there, is that the human sense of the sacred—and the human love of a good spectacle—may have given rise to civilization itself.
He had been working at a site there for a few years and was looking for another place to excavate. Disturbance was evident at the top of the hill, but they attributed it to the activities of a Byzantine-era military outpost. Here and there were broken pieces of limestone they thought were gravestones. Schmidt had come across the Chicago researchers' brief description of the hilltop and decided to check it out. On the ground he saw flint chips—huge numbers of them.
The limestone slabs were not Byzantine graves but something much older. Inches below the surface the team struck an elaborately fashioned stone. Then another, and another—a ring of standing pillars. As the months and years went by, Schmidt's team, a shifting crew of German and Turkish graduate students and 50 or more local villagers, found a second circle of stones, then a third, and then more.
Geomagnetic surveys in revealed at least 20 rings piled together, higgledy-piggledy, under the earth. The pillars were big—the tallest are 18 feet in height and weigh 16 tons. Swarming over their surfaces was a menagerie of animal bas-reliefs, each in a different style, some roughly rendered, a few as refined and symbolic as Byzantine art. Other parts of the hill were littered with the greatest store of ancient flint tools Schmidt had ever seen—a Neolithic warehouse of knives, choppers, and projectile points.
Even though the stone had to be lugged from neighboring valleys, Schmidt says, "there were more flints in one little area here, a square meter or two, than many archaeologists find in entire sites.Chiefly, how could hunter-gatherers with a supposedly primitive societal structure build such monumental stone circles on this barren hilltop in what is today southeastern Turkey?
How could a largely nomadic society at the dawn of agriculture marshal the resources and know-how to create what its discoverers have dubbed the oldest known temple in the world? These circles appear to have been built around pairs of pillars positioned roughly in their center. Only four circles from the PPNA, dubbed enclosures A, B, C, and D, have been excavated so far, but surveys have shown there are at least 15 more scattered around the hill, as well as half a dozen other similar unexplored sites across southeastern Turkey.
The new study focused on enclosures B,C, and D, which are known to be slightly older than A. Haklay, who formerly worked as an architect, applied a method called architectural formal analysis, which is used to trace the planning principles and methods used in the design of existing structures. Using an algorithm, he identified the center points of the three irregular stone circles.
Not surprisingly, those points fell roughly mid-way between the pair of central pillars in each enclosure. What was surprising, however, was that those three points could be linked to form a nearly perfect equilateral triangle.
Specifically, the vertices are about 25 centimeters away from forming a perfect triangle with sides measuring At a time when the invention of writing was millennia away, this could be accomplished, for example, by using reeds of equal length to create a rudimentary blueprint on the ground, he suggests. The massive T-shaped pillars and the reliefs on them — animal and human-like - have been interpreted as totems: perhaps representations of protective spirits, possibly long-deceased ancestors, some of whom were believed to take on animal form.
The southern side of the triangle runs through the central stone pillars of enclosures B and C, creating a base for the polygon. The axis perpendicular to this line runs through the entire site and ends in the center of enclosure D, which can be interpreted as the top of the pyramid. This suggests that the builders understood and wished to represent the idea of a hierarchy, perhaps intending to crystalize the new order of a less equal and more stratified society, Haklay and Gopher maintain.
The stratification was not limited to human relations: it suggests a change in the perceived relationship between humans and nature, the archaeologists suggest. Placing these human depictions at the top of this triangle would have been a powerful message, and represented an ideological departure from the animal-centric canons of Paleolithic art. Once that ideology changes, the entire structure of society is transformed and a new world is born.
Ariel David Apr. Get email notification for articles from Ariel David Follow. Play audio. Mute audio. Open gallery view. Architectural analysis of hidden geometry at Gobekli Tepe: drawing superimposed over a schematic plan of Gobekli Tepe Credit: Plan by K. Schmidt and J.The deep, purposeful linear grooves are a unique form of skull alteration never before seen anywhere in the world in any context, says Julia Gresky, lead author on the study and an anthropologist at the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin.
Detailed analysis with a special microscope shows the grooves were deliberately made with a flint tool. One of the fragments even has a hole drilled in it, resembling skull modifications made by the Naga people of India who used the hole to hang the skull on a string.51 number in binary
She explains that archaeological remains from other sites in the region indicate people would commonly bury their dead, then exhume them, remove the skulls, and display them creatively. Other archaeologists have even found that Neolithic people would remodel the faces of the dead with plaster. See the face behind the 9,year-old plastered Jericho Skull. The site's massive T-shaped stone pillars and prominent position on top of a hill with sweeping vistas suggests the hunter-gathers who lived here also had a somewhat complex culture and practiced rituals.
But this find does raise additional questions about who the skulls belong to and why they were treated this way. Besides the cut-mark and drill-hole evidence, Gresky says other clues at the site show this culture placed a special significance on skulls. The site iconography fits with special emphasis on the skull.
Then we can get a clearer picture of how these people lived. All rights reserved. The Olmec civilization, the first in Mesoamerica, offers valuable clues into the development of the rest of the region. Share Tweet Email. Read This Next. Families are leading a new wave for Black travelers. Travel Race in America Families are leading a new wave for Black travelers For many parents, showing their kids the world is about both the past and the future.
National Geographic: Gobekli Tepe
More than years after its discovery, this moth was finally photographed alive. This in-demand plant is evolving to hide from its predator—humans. Environment This in-demand plant is evolving to hide from its predator—humans The small herb, once easily spotted by its vibrant flower and leaves, is growing brown and gray in spots where humans often pluck them.
Go Further. Animals Nearly 5, sea turtles rescued from freezing waters on Texas island. Animals Wildlife Watch Monkeys still forced to pick coconuts in Thailand despite controversy. Animals A black-footed ferret has been cloned, a first for a U. Animals Grizzlies are coming back. But can we make room for them?
Animals Photo Ark More than years after its discovery, this moth was finally photographed alive. Animals Lasers, cannons, effigies: The surprising science of shooing vultures away. Animals Domesticated Pets are helping us cope during the pandemic—but that may be stressing them out.
Environment Same force behind Texas deep freeze could drive prolonged heat waves. Environment The Keystone XL pipeline is dead. Now what? Environment This in-demand plant is evolving to hide from its predator—humans.Hi launcher tecno
Environment These widely used insecticides may be a threat to mammals too. Environment Oil drilling on sensitive New Mexico public lands puts drinking water, rare caves at risk. This vibrant sanctuary underscores the stakes. Environment This single number could reshape our climate future.But now, that answer might be Karahan Tepe, and this is creating a lot of excitement in archaeological circles.
Over the years, archaeologists have made a series of amazing discoveries at the Karahan Tepe site. Head of excavations at Karahan Tepe, Professor Dr. The scientist also thinks hunter-gatherers traveled long distances to meet, worship, and help build new monumental structures through vast community projects that included grand feasts to display wealth.
Hollywood Entertainment News. Paranormal News. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share on Pinterest. Share on LinkedIn. This article was originally published by Ancient-origins.
Read the original article here. Articles You May Like. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.Karl W.
15 mind-boggling images of Göbekli Tepe
Excavation of Goebekli Tepe has revealed the hitherto unknown religion of the "Neolithic Revolution. Progress in weapon manufacture resulted in overhunting, a temporary surplus of meat, too many human hunters, and a decline in prey animal populations. Shortages of prey animals elicited a priestly cult that specialized in the regeneration of life. Priestly minds rationalized taking control of plants and animals and thereby encouraged domestication--which led to "hyper-domestication," or, what evolved as our history of civilization and our history of religions.
Even the longest journey begins with a first step! Systemic Habitats is online since the 18th of May This website was created to publish online my ebook "Towards another habitat" on the contemporary architecture and urbanism. Later many other contents were added. Thanks for your visit! Vista web Vista Mobile. A remarkable. Secrets of the Stone Age, I. DW Documentary. Secrets of the Stone Age, II.
National Geographic. Number of Visitors from :. Vista web Vista Mobile Esci Modifica pagina.Posted by Uzay Sezen on July 31, at pm.Turkey's Geographic Challenge
Civilization as we hypothesized was a sequential progression in the following manner:. Early documentaries such as The Ascent of Man by Charles Bronowski is an example of the way our thinking was organized.
Two years later, Newsweek followed with a brief article.
Breakthrough Discovery: Karahan Tepe Is Older Than Gobekli Tepe – Ancient Origins
Same year, The New Yorker also covered the story. Indeed, the illustration prepared for National Geographic does a great job to give us a sense of the scale of the site:. How was it built, we are beginning to understand little by little.
Why was it built is another deeply curious question. Archeologists are not alone in hypothesis generation. Climate is a prerequisite for agriculture. You can find a brief synopsis about the tight climate-agriculture relationship in climate-agriculture relationship compiling genomic aspects of plant domestication. Agriculture may have been invented perhaps as early as k years ago but had to be abandoned multiple times simply because of climate change.
Grinding stones discovered from caves in Mozambique covered with Sorghum starch dating back to thousand years ago. Food processing is an indicator of social sophistication. One explanation is that circular buildings might have been used as an observatory or perhaps a very large calendar to track a distinct astronomical object. Characteristic T-shaped central pillars within some more than 20 circular closures were set to frame Sirius.
When the sky of the 11 thousand years ago was simulated, position of the Sirius provides credibility to the hypothesis remember, it is still a hypothesis, NOT a theory yet. Presence of art or decoration in structures should not always be attributed to religion.
Rather than reproducing an accurate picture, artists depict objects in a stylized, symbolized ways which can be seen as a precursor to amblems, signs or perhaps even letters in alphabets. Like the Ain Sakhri Lovers found in a Judean cave at around that time abstract representations started to appear in Human-made objects.
Grasses like wheat and barley were selected by early farmers leading to plants with reduced seed shattering ability. Non-shattering seeds were easier to harvest especially when using a sickle. Non-shattering seeds is viewed as a hallmark of a suit of characters all together referred as domestication syndrome including reduced dormancy and fast germination, reduced branching, insensitivity to day length and larger grain size.
Archaeology is continuing to fascinate us. It is a window into Human nature and cultural evolution. Big Thank You to all the archeologists and documentation experts! Outstanding work. Helpful for understanding cultural evolution from hunter-gatherer to agriculture-cultivator.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.Thought to be a Neolithic temple, this ancient stone circle is 6, years older than Stonehenge, and far more complex. Digging deeper, the archaeologists unearthed more pillars, decorated with elaborately carved figures. These immense standing stones were arranged in circles and would have supported additional huge stone blocks, some of which weighed more than 10 tons.
Erecting these stone pillars and placing such heavy blocks on top of them would have required an immense feat of engineering. Yet the site was constructed in 9, BC, thousands of years before the development of written language and agriculture, and well before human beings began to develop permanent settlements and cities.
The team found no traces of human settlement around the site: no remains of houses, ovens or trenches for rubbish. Instead, they found many animal bones within the temple, which bore the signs of having been butchered and cooked.
All of the animal bones excavated came from local game, predominately gazelle, boar, sheep, deer and wild fowl, which suggests that the people who made and used the site were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Pillar with the sculpture of a fox. Traditional scholars have long maintained that the development of sophisticated human society was contingent on the transition from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian way of life.
According to this narrative, it was only once humans had developed permanent settlements and systems of agriculture and farming that they were able to have the time, organization and resources to develop temples and complicated social structures. Nomadic, hunter-gatherer societies in Anatolia constructed large, complex temples before they developed agricultural practices and formed permanently settled communities.
Indeed, according to Smithsonian Magazine, in the 1, years following the construction of the temple, permanent settlements do appear in other parts of Anatolia and northern Syria, providing some of the earliest evidence for the cultivation of wheat crops and the domestication of cattle.
Until his death inSchmidt remained convinced that it was an important religious temple, and his view is supported by the elaborate carvings on the pillars. These include images of scorpions, lions, snakes, and vultures, a collection of symbols that are associated with religion, death and the afterlife in other ancient cultures of the Near East.
Although the true purpose of this incredible site remains shrouded in mystery, it is hoped that continued excavations will provide further clues about its fascinating past.Jul leve toi bouge ton boule
Apr 12, Louise Flatley.
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